Introduction & Difference Between Transpiration & Evaporation !

INTRODUCTION Transpiration is a physical process that takes place in plants only. It is a process of water evaporation from plants. PLACE OF TRANSPIRATION It occurs in all kinds of plants specially in the terrestrial plants. It occurs mainly at leaves while their stomata are open for the process of photosynthesis. TIME OF TRANSPIRATION It […]

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Enzyme Types & Nature of Enzyme Action !!

TYPES OF ENZYME Oxidoreductases Transfer hydrogen and oxygen atoms or electrons from one substrate to another Transferases Transfer phosphate or methyl group from one substrate to another Hydrolases Hydrolysis a substrate Isomerases Change molecular form of the substrate Lyases Non-hydrolytic removal of a group or addition of a group to a substrate  Ligases Join two […]

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Introduction of Enzyme : Characteristics & Example !!

ENZYME Enzyme, in Greek means in living. (En=in, Zyme=living). Coined by Wilhelm Kunhe, 1976. DEFINITION An enzyme is a protein molecule that is a biological catalyst that catalyzes chemical reaction. CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYME Speed up chemical reaction. Enzymes are required in minute amounts. They are highly specific in their action. Affected by temperature. They are […]

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Introduction & Process of Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis !!

SPERMATOGENESIS Process of producing spermatozoa from spermatogonial stem cells by the way of mitosis & meiosis. Spermatogonia ———- primary spermatocyte ———– secondary spermatocyte ———- spermatid ———- spermatozoa.   LOCATION In mammals spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the male testes. TIME Spermatogenesis continues young (13-14 yr) to old man (60-65 yr age). PROCESS Spermatogenesis […]

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Female Reproductive System,Organs & It’s Functions !!

Each sex has their own reproduction system which is different in structure but they are involved to produce, nourish and transport either the egg or sperm. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Female reproductive system includes primary and secondary sex organs. PRIMARY SEX ORGANS Primary sex organ includes a paired ovary. SECONDARY SEX ORGANS Secondary sex organ includes […]

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Male Reproductive System, Organs & It’s Functions !!

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Male reproductive system includes scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, male gamete and components of semen. PRIMARY SEX ORGAN OF MALE Testes SECONDARY or ACCESSORY SEX ORGANS  Vas deference Epididymis Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate Cowper’s gland EXTERNAL SEX ORGAN Penis Scrotum TESTES […]

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Introduction Of Human Reproductive System & Gametogenesis !!

REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY Sexual reproduction is a process in which two organism produce offspring through gamets. The physical maturity of reproduction and the capacity for human reproduction begin during puberty. Hypothalamus produces hormones during puberty. These hormones stimulate gonads to produce testosterone for male, estrogen and progesterone for female. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Testis. Scrotum. Penis. Sperm […]

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glycolysis in cytoplasm

The Process & The Product Of Glycolysis In Cytoplasm !!

GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. It is a process of breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid. Scientist Embden, Meyerhof, & Parnas described different steps of glycolysis. So glycolysis also called EMP pathway. PLACE OF GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm. SUBSTRATE Glucose REQUIREMENTS One molecule of glucose. 2ATP. 4ADP. 2NAD. Inorganic phosphate. […]

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