Enzyme Types & Nature of Enzyme Action !!

TYPES OF ENZYME Oxidoreductases Transfer hydrogen and oxygen atoms or electrons from one substrate to another Transferases Transfer phosphate or methyl group from one substrate to another Hydrolases Hydrolysis a substrate Isomerases Change molecular form of the substrate Lyases Non-hydrolytic removal of a group or addition of a group to a substrate  Ligases Join two […]

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Introduction of Enzyme : Characteristics & Example !!

ENZYME Enzyme, in Greek means in living. (En=in, Zyme=living). Coined by Wilhelm Kunhe, 1976. DEFINITION An enzyme is a protein molecule that is a biological catalyst that catalyzes chemical reaction. CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYME Speed up chemical reaction. Enzymes are required in minute amounts. They are highly specific in their action. Affected by temperature. They are […]

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The TCA cycle,It’s Regulation !!

TCA CYCLE The citric acid cycle or TCA cycle is the central metabolic pathway of the cell. It is essentially involves the oxidation of acetyle CoA to CO2 and H2O.  TCA cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrate, fats and amino acids. TCA cycle is also known as Krebs cycle. In eukaryotes, the […]

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Glycogenesis,Gluconeogenesis !!

GLYCOGENESIS Glycogenesis is the process of formation of glycogen from glucose in the tissue. Mainly the liver and muscles and to lesser extents many other tissues, except mature erythrocytes, brain and kidneys carry out glycogenesis and store the glycogen. STEPS OF GLYCOGENESIS Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate by the enzyme hexokinase. Glucose-6-phosphate is transformed into […]

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Oxidative Phosphorylation,Electron Transport Chain !!

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION It is main source of energy of our cell. Takes place in Mitochondria. Movement of protons through inner mitochondrial membrane leads to ATP production DEFINITION Oxidative phosphorylation includes the coupling of the oxidation of NADH or FADH2 by the respiratory chain with the synthesis of ATP via gradient of protons across the inner […]

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Lipid Metabolism,Fatty Acid Synthesis !!

LIPID METABOLISM Lipids have a wide variety of role in biological system.These roles are a consequence of their physical and chemical properties. Lipid metabolism is the synthesis of lipid in a cell. We have already seen membrane has composed of fatty acid derivatives. These compounds forms hydrophobic barrier which separate cells from surrounding and subdivided […]

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Protein Metabolism,Urea Cycle !!

PROTEIN METABOLISM Dietary protein of animals cannot normally be absorbed across intestinal membranes. These are digested in the gastrointestinal tract into the amino acids by the proteolytic enzymes. These amino acids are actively transported across the intestinal wall into the portal circulation & are carried to the liver, which is principle organ responsible for the […]

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Introduction of Metabolism,Carbohydrate Metabolism !!

METABOLISM Metabolism is the sum of various sequence of chemical process by which food is utilized by a living organism to provide energy, growth substance & cell repair Metabolism is two types CATABOLISM Degradation of absorbed food substances into smaller molecules. It is exothermic. ANABOLISM Biosynthesis of complex molecules from simpler components. It is endothermic. […]

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Structure,Classification,Function Of Protein !!

PROTEIN Protein is an essential constituent of all cells. About two third of the total dry weight of the cell is composed of protein. Protein is in every part of our body, skin, muscles, hair, blood, organs, eyes, fingers nails & bones. Adults intake about 100 grams protein in a day. Proteins are macromolecular polymers […]

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Structure,Function of Lipid Molecule !!

LIPID Lipids may be defines as a compounds which are relatively insoluble in water but freely soluble in non polar organic solvants like benzene, chloroform, acetone, ether, alcohol etc. Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules that include, Fatty acids Triacylglecerides. Phospholipids. Sphingolipids. Waxes. Sterols. Terpens etc. CLASSIFICATION OF LIPIDS Lipids are classified […]

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