glycolysis in cytoplasm

The Process & The Product Of Glycolysis In Cytoplasm !!


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GLYCOLYSIS

Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration.

It is a process of breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid.

Scientist Embden, Meyerhof, & Parnas described different steps of glycolysis. So glycolysis also called EMP pathway.

PLACE OF GLYCOLYSIS

Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm.

PLACE OF GLYCOLYSIS

SUBSTRATE

Glucose

REQUIREMENTS

  • One molecule of glucose.
  • 2ATP.
  • 4ADP.
  • 2NAD.
  • Inorganic phosphate.
  • Cytoplasmic enzymes.

PRODUCT

  • 2 pyruvic acid.
  • 4ATP.
  • 2ADP.
  • 2NADP.

CHARACTERS

  1. It occur with or without oxygen.
  2. Glucose is broken down into two molecule of pyruvic acid.
  3. Net gain of ATP of glycolysis is 2ATP because out of 4ATP produced , 2 of the ATP are used.

STEPS OF GLYCOLYSIS

Different steps of glycolysis are divided into two phase

  • Preparatory phase.
  • Pay off phase.

PREPARATORY PHASE

STEP 1: phosphoryl transfer

Reaction

Glucose + ATP ↔ glucose-6-phosphate + ADP + H

Enzyme  

Hexokinase.

glycolysis-step-1

STEP2: Isomerisation

Reaction

Glucose-6-phosphate ↔ fructose -6-phosphate.

Enzyme

Phosphohexokinase isomerase.

glycolysis-step-2

STEP3: phosphoryl transfer

Reaction

Fructose-6-phosphate + ATP ↔ fructose 1,6 bisphosphate +ADP + H

Enzyme

Phosphofructokinase

glycolysis-step-3

STEP4: Aldol cleavase

Reaction  

Fructose 1, 6 bisphosohate ↔ dihydroxy acetone phosphate + glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate.

Enzyme

Aldolase

glycolysis-step-4-and-step-5

PAY OFF PHASE                 

STEP5: Isomeraisation

Reaction  

Dihydroxy acetone phosphate ↔  glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate.

Enzyme   

Triose phosphate isomerise

glycolysis-step-5

STEP 6: Phosphorylation + oxidation

Reaction  

Glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate + NAD+ Pi ↔  1, 3 bisphosphoglycerate + NADH+ H

Enzyme

Glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate dehydrogenase.

glycolysis-step-6

STEP 7: Phosphoryl transfer

Reaction

1, 3 bis phosphoglycerate + ADP ↔ 3 phosphoglycerate + ATP.

Enzyme

Phosphoglycerate kinase

glycolysis-step-7

STEP 8: Phosphoryl shift

Reaction  

3 phosphoglycerate ↔ 2 phosphoglycerate.

Enzyme

Phosphoglyceromutase

glycolysis-step-8

STEP 9: Dehydration

Reaction  

2 phosphoglycerate ↔ 2 phosohoenol pyruvate + H2O.

Enzyme

Enolase

GLYCOLYSIS step9

STEP10: phosphoryl transfer

Reaction

Phosphoenol pyruvate + ADP + H ↔ pyruvate (pyruvic acid) + ATP

Enzyme

Pyruvate kinase

glycolysis-step-10

IMPORTANCE OF GLYCOLYSIS

  1. Net gain of ATP in aerobic respiration is 8 & in anaerobic respiration are 2.
  2. Electrons from glucose are stored in NADH.
  3. ATP is used as immediate energy.

This is the general notes on Glycolysis in cytoplasm and it’s process,the product of  glycolysis.

Thank you for reading.


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