Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration.
It is a process of breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid.
Scientist Embden, Meyerhof, & Parnas described different steps of glycolysis. So glycolysis also called EMP pathway.
PLACE OF GLYCOLYSIS
Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm.
- One molecule of glucose.
- Inorganic phosphate.
- Cytoplasmic enzymes.
- 2 pyruvic acid.
- It occur with or without oxygen.
- Glucose is broken down into two molecule of pyruvic acid.
- Net gain of ATP of glycolysis is 2ATP because out of 4ATP produced , 2 of the ATP are used.
STEPS OF GLYCOLYSIS
Different steps of glycolysis are divided into two phase
- Preparatory phase.
- Pay off phase.
STEP 1: phosphoryl transfer
Glucose + ATP ↔ glucose-6-phosphate + ADP + H
Glucose-6-phosphate ↔ fructose -6-phosphate.
STEP3: phosphoryl transfer
Fructose-6-phosphate + ATP ↔ fructose 1,6 bisphosphate +ADP + H
STEP4: Aldol cleavase
Fructose 1, 6 bisphosohate ↔ dihydroxy acetone phosphate + glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate.
PAY OFF PHASE
Dihydroxy acetone phosphate ↔ glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate.
Triose phosphate isomerise
STEP 6: Phosphorylation + oxidation
Glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate + NAD+ Pi ↔ 1, 3 bisphosphoglycerate + NADH+ H
Glyceraldehydes 3 phosphate dehydrogenase.
STEP 7: Phosphoryl transfer
1, 3 bis phosphoglycerate + ADP ↔ 3 phosphoglycerate + ATP.
STEP 8: Phosphoryl shift
3 phosphoglycerate ↔ 2 phosphoglycerate.
STEP 9: Dehydration
2 phosphoglycerate ↔ 2 phosohoenol pyruvate + H2O.
STEP10: phosphoryl transfer
Phosphoenol pyruvate + ADP + H ↔ pyruvate (pyruvic acid) + ATP
IMPORTANCE OF GLYCOLYSIS
- Net gain of ATP in aerobic respiration is 8 & in anaerobic respiration are 2.
- Electrons from glucose are stored in NADH.
- ATP is used as immediate energy.
This is the general notes on Glycolysis in cytoplasm and it’s process,the product of glycolysis.
Thank you for reading.