RIA,ELISA,It’s Principle,Applications !!

RIA (RADIO IMMUNOASSAY) DISCOVERY In 1960, S.A Benson and Rosalyn Yalow introduced radioimmunoassay (RIA) into clinical medicine as a practical method for the quantitation of plasma insulin levels. REQUIREMENT Radio labelled antigen (Gama ray emitting iodine 125I) Unlabeled antigen High affinity Ab. PRINCIPLE RIA involves the competitive binding of a radiolabelled antigen to a high […]

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Antigen-Antibody Reactions,It’s Different Techniques !!

ANTIGEN ANTIBODY REACTIONS Antigen antibody reaction is a biomolecular ,reversible and specific association.every antibodies are able to specifically recognize a wide variety of antigen molecule for interaction with varying affinities. Various type of non covalent  interaction may contribute to antibody to bind with antigen. For example: Electrostatic forces. Hydrogen bonds. Vander waals forces. Hydrophobic interactions. […]

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Vaccine Or Vaccination,It’s Types !!

VACCINE Vaccine the word derived from cowpox (cow means ” vacca” in Latin) Vaccine is biological preparation .It contain an agent that resembles a disease causing microorganism & is often made from killed forms of microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the foreign […]

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b cell

T Cell,B Cell,It’s Property,Functions !!

Lymphocytes are most important white blood than other white blood cell circulating in the blood and lymph. The most abundant lymphocytes are B-lymphocytes (b cell)   T-lymphocytes (t cell)   PROPERTY OF B LYMPHOCYTE/B-CELL B cells are produced in the bone marrow & matured in the bursa of fabricius in birds and secondary lymphoma in […]

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Structure,AntibodyTypes !!

ANTIBODY Antibody is a glycoprotein that is produced in response to the administration of an antigen & can recognize & bind to the specific site of antigen that caused its production. From the experiment by A. Tiselius & E.A Kibat (1939), it is proved that antibodies contained gamma globulin fraction, so it is called Immunoglobulin. […]

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Antigen,It’s Property,Types !!

ANTIGEN Antigen is a substance that may be specifically bound by an antibody A substance that induces specific immune response called antigen or immunogen or complete antigen. Molecular weight > 100 Kd Antigen —- bound to antibody—- immune response IMMUNOGENICITY Immunogenicity is the ability of an antigen to elicit a humoral or cell mediated immune […]

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Immunoglobulin,It’s Types !!

IMMUNOGLOBULIN Various immunoglobulin & their sub classes have been distinguished by unique amino acid sequences in heavy chain constant region that confer class specific structural & functional properties. IgG STRUCTURE IgG is a monomer. It consists of two gamma heavy chain & two kappa or two lambda light chains. IgG have four subclass (IgG1, IgG2, […]

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Immunity,It’s Types !!

IMMUNITY The ability of the body o fights against infection or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells. TYPES OF IMMUNITY There are mainly two types of immunity. Innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity. Adaptive immunity. Naturally acquired immunity. Artificial acquired immunity.   INNATE IMMUNITY It is a non pathogen specific type […]

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immune system

Immunology,Immune System,It’s Diseases,Function !!

IMMUNOLOGY The word immunology derived from the Latin word “immunitias meaning ‘to free’ or ‘exempt’. Immunology is the study of physiologic mechanisms that allow the body defends and maintains the constancy of self structures against invasion by foreign agents or development of unwanted cells or cell products within itself. IMMUNE SYSTEM Immune system is a […]

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