trp operon

Tryptophan Operon,It’s Structure,Regulation !!

TRYPTOPHAN OPERON The trp operon is another example of co- ordinated gene regulation. The entire tryptophan operon is approximately 7000 bp long. Transcription of the operon results in the production of a polygenic mRNA for the five structural genes. Tryptophan is needed itself to inactivate the trp operon, it is called co-repressor. GENE ORGANIZATION OF […]

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Gene regulation in prokaryotes !!

GENE REGULATION IN PROKARYOTES Prokaryotes must use substances and synthesize macromolecules just fast enough to meet their needs. If enzyme needed, gene transcribed. If enzyme not needed, gene turned off. Allows for conservation of the cell resources. Controlling gene expression occurs by two methods. Lac operon. Tryptophan operon. OPERON Genes grouped together, transcribed into single […]

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Translation,It’s Processes !!

TRANSLATION Protein synthesis takes place on ribosome, where the genetic mess encoded in mRNA is translated. The mRNA is translated in the 5’-3’ direction and the polypeptide is made in the N-terminal to C-terminal direction. DEFINITION Translation is the mechanism by which the triplet base sequence of a mRNA guides the linking of a specific […]

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chromosomal aberration..

Chromosomal Aberration,Different Chromosomal disorders !!

CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATION A chromosome aberration is a missing of extra or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA. It can form a typical number of chromosome or structural abnormality in one or more chromosome. Chromosomal disorder may also change in amount or arrangement of the genetic information in the cells which may result in problems in growth, […]

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Introduction of Mutation,It’s Types !!

DEFINITION Any detectable, inheritable qualitative or quantitative changes in the genetic material of an organism termed as mutation. MUTANT An organism exhibiting a novel phenotype as a result of a mutation is called mutant MUTAGEN Any physical or chemical agent that significantly increases the frequency of mutational events above the spontaneous mutation rate called mutagen. […]

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Central Dogma,Genetic Code !!

CENTRAL DOGMA The chromosomal DNA contains complete information about all the specific proteins to be synthesized in the cells for their needs. This information is passed on by the DNA of the gene located in the sense strand to the mRNA transcribed from it as a single chain of complementary bases. The mRNA, with the […]

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Introduction of Chromosome,It’s Structure,Function !!

CHROMOSOMES The word chromosome derived from Greek word “chroma” means color & “Soma” means body. Scientist Waldeyer, in 1888 first coined the term chromosome. Chromosomes are found in pairs in the nucleus of every cell. Chromosome are made up with protein and smaller unit of gene that contain genetic information & passed it from parents to […]

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Transcription,It’s Processes !!

TRANSCRIPTION Transcription takes double stranded DNA & turn it into single stranded chain of nucleotides, the RNA. DEFINITION Transcription is a process of making mRNA strand from a DNA template using base pairing rules by the help of RNA polymerase enzyme PLACE Transcription occurs in nucleus REQUIREMENTS A gene segment in the DNA Free floating […]

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enzyme involved in dna replication

Enzymes,Proteins Involved In DNA Replication !!

DNA replication is carried out by a series of enzymes. Enzymes are responsible for unzipping a molecule from DNA.They breakdown the hydrogen bonds between base pair strand two strands of molecules. They are responsible for joining individual nucleotides together to produce a new strand of DNA. ENZYMES AND PROTEINS  INVOLVED IN DNA REPLICATION HELICASE DNA […]

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